越早知道越好✎﹏城镇景观作者●免费和平精英开挂神器《风景园林》2022-11刊首语 | 郭巍:城市景观的设计与图析

文章来源:卡密网 时间:22-11-15 05:58:57 阅读数:128人阅读

1.越早知道越好

原标题:《风景园林》2022-11刊首语 | 郭巍:城市景观的设计与图析

越早知道越好✎﹏城镇景观作者●免费和平精英开挂神器《风景园林》2022-11刊首语 | 郭巍:城市景观的设计与图析

2.越早知道越好的10个人生道理

全文刊登于《风景园林》2022年 第11期P8-9 城市景观的设计与图析Mapping and Design of Urban Landscape“析理以辞,解体用图”,古人的这句话充分说明了文字和图纸在表述和和平精英科技购买平台分析方面的巨大差异。

3.越早知道越好的人生经验

地图是表达和存储空间信息的有效工具中国具有悠久的地图绘制历史,马王堆汉墓帛书古舆图中就描绘了地形、水系和城镇,西晋时期裴秀的“制图六体”对地图绘制的距离、高程、比例等方面进行了一系列的准则构建,南宋后城市舆图的数量和精确度有了明显的增加,甚至出现了《平江图》和《靖江府城图》这样较为精确描绘城市形态的地图,但似乎直到清末,大量出现的依然是带有浓厚绘画方式,看上去不那么“准确”的城市舆图。

4.越早知道越好的道理

与此形成对照的是,文艺复兴时期,古罗马托勒密世界地图的再次发现,西欧一扫中世纪的地图绘制方式,逐渐形成由长度、比例和坐标体系描述空间秩序的规范做和平精英科技购买平台法,加之布鲁奈烈斯基对透视几何学的探索,使得几何制图学、平立剖面逐渐成为城市景观认知和再现的工具。

5.越早知道越好的人生建议

可以用2张城市地图直接感受到这2种表达方式的巨大差异一张是民国时期以现代投影和测绘技术绘制的《宁波市全图》;另一张为《宁波府城厢水陆舆图》,它是清末民初的城市传统舆图2张图绘制时间差别不大,前者“如实”地表达了宁波城市街巷、水系和城外的农田,后者却显得有些“随心所欲”,将原本梨形的城市轮廓画得更为有机,城市方位改为正南北,放大了街巷尤其是河流的宽度,并以三维方式绘制了城墙、瓮城和标志性的鼓楼等建筑。

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6.越早知道越好的人情世故

毫无疑问,《宁波府城厢水陆舆图》更像是绘图者对城和平精英科技购买平台市意向的表达,城市如同是坐落在水网之中的有机组合,较为规则的子城和轴线源于悠久深厚的营城传统,而有机变化的罗城和街巷则是对地区水网环境的呼应,那些貌似随意的调整,正是出于其对宁波城市的结构性认知,隐含着绘图者对城市形态感知和景观评价。

7.越早知道越好的八条人生建议

现代城市地图以“客观中立”的方式,将城市空间特征简化为某些特定的物理属性尤其是几何尺寸,表现出某个特定瞬间的城市形态,它们很大程度上成为解读城市形态的基本工具Bernard Tschumi曾经感叹“传统的建筑语言局限了思维,通常建筑师使用的再现方式:平面、剖面、轴侧与透视变成了建筑学的牢笼和限制,将建筑学演变为一种金字塔式的思考,任何和平精英科技购买平台跨越这种限制提供其他建筑解读的企图都要求质疑这样的语言传统”。

8.越早知道越好的三个扎心的真相

现代城市地图对城市景观研究的促进和限制也与此类似风景园林界大概在20世纪90年代开始理解地理学界对现代地图在测绘、投射和绘制方面的批判James Corner对此评论道,由于风景园林行业尚不了解地图绘制技术在表现客体世界过程中的高度选择性,以至于将地图当作规划设计工作的客观事实基础,那些在地图上被优先表现的元素直接影响设计方案,而那些被排除的元素则被忽视。

9.越早知道越好的7条忠告

城市景观作为复杂系统,具有多层级性和多样性的特点,非常有必要揭示其在不同尺度下呈现的空间等级秩序和结构逻辑,以实现系统性的和平精英科技购买平台完整认知并指引设计传统城市舆图所表现出的空间视角的多元性、绘图者的空间参与性、非空间元素的描述性和形态发育的过程性等特征,逐渐引起城市研究者的重视。

10.越早知道越好的社交技巧

同时,现代城市地图也通过分层、分类、叠加、拼贴等方式,将不同的空间信息加以筛选和组合,以达到分析和表达的目的正如James Corner在“The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention”一文中谈到,通过绘图设置(图框、指北针、坐标系、比例尺、度量衡、投影方法)、信息要素提取(事物、部分、数据)、要素关系绘制(几何空间、分类系谱)3种手段构建起一个设计和平精英科技购买平台与分析的工具—图析(mapping),它将“感知/测量”与“设计/发明”这2个环节有效地连接在一起。

本期专栏稿件呈现了城市景观的大量精彩图析—从欧洲大陆的意大利威尼斯、荷兰鹿特丹、西班牙特内里费岛和加泰罗尼亚中部巴格斯地区;到亚洲大陆的中国大湾区、武汉、深圳、浙南传统村落和韩国釜山地区;还有美国的底特律。

研究者背景较为多元,分别来自中国、荷兰、德国、韩国、西班牙、澳大利亚、智利、南非研究对象的广泛性证明了图析的适用性,而研究者背景的多元化也说明,即使因为文化与个人生活、从业经验不同会带来空间视角和空间参与的差异性,但通过图析所得的研究成果却具有领域内的专业共识。

According to an 和平精英科技购买平台ancient Chinese saying, “theories should be discussed with words and a specific space object should be analyzed with drawings”. This remark shows clearly the huge difference between texts and drawings in deion and analysis. Map is an effective tool to pass on and store space information. China has a和平精英科技购买平台 long history of cartography. On the silk maps unearthed from Mawangdui Han tombs, the landforms, river systems, cities and towns are depicted. The “six basic principles for cartography” summarized by Pei Xiu in the Western Jin Dynasty provided a series of standards for the distance, elevation and s和平精英科技购买平台cale of a map. The number and precision of city maps tremendously increased after the Southern Song Dynasty, and even maps that could precisely describe the urban morphology emerged, such as Map of Pingjiang City and Map of Jingjiang Prefectural City . However, until the late Qing Dynasty, less “acc和平精英科技购买平台urate” city maps with strong painting features seemingly constituted the majority.

By contrast, the mapping method of the medieval times was completely abandoned in the renaissance period due to the rediscovery of the Roman Ptolemy’s world map. Gradually, a standard mapping mode was formed in Western和平精英科技购买平台 Europe, which used the length, scale and coordinate system to describe the spatial order. In addition, Brunelleschi’s research regarding perspective geometry popularized the geometric cartography and plan, section, and elevation drawings as tools to cognize and reproduce urban landscapes.

The wide v和平精英科技购买平台ariations between texts and drawings can be directly revealed by two city maps. One is the Completed Map of Ningbo City , which was drawn by means of modern projection and mapping technology in the Republic of China era. Another one is the Land and Water Map of Ningbo Prefectural City , a traditiona和平精英科技购买平台l urban map in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. The two maps were made at similar times. The former faithfully presents the streets and rivers inside the Ningbo city and farmlands outside the city. However, the latter arbitrarily alters the pear-shaped city outline into a more 和平精英科技购买平台organic one and the city position into a north-south direction, and widens the streets and especially the rivers. Moreover, the city walls, small towns outside the city gate, and landmark buildings such as the Drum Tower in the latter map are three-dimensional.

It is beyond doubt that the Land and Wa和平精英科技购买平台ter Map of Ningbo Prefectural City is more an intentional expression of the city by the drafter. The whole city is like an organic combination located in the water network. Regular small cities and axes are originated from the time-honored and rich tradition of inner cities, while the organically ch和平精英科技购买平台anging outer cities and streets respond to the regional water network environment. The apparently random adjustments are actually based on the structural cognition of the Ningbo city, and reflect the drafter’s perception of the city morphology and assessments of the city landscape.

Modern city maps s和平精英科技购买平台implify urban spatial characteristics into some specific physical properties, especially geometric dimensions in a more objective and neutral way, so as to display the city morphology at a particular instant in time. They have been widely applied as a basic tool to describe the city morphology. Bern和平精英科技购买平台ard Tschumi once said, “The traditional architectural language confines the thoughts, and the plan, section, axial and perspective reproduction methods frequently used by the architects become a cage that limits the architecture. As a result, the architecture is forced to evolve into a pyramid think和平精英科技购买平台ing pattern, and any attempts to transcend this limitation and provide other architectural interpretations are considered questioning the traditional architectural language”. Modern city maps also promote and inhibit the development of city landscape research in a similar way.

The landscape architect和平精英科技购买平台ure society started to comment on the criticisms of surveying, projection and drawing of modern maps from the geography society since around the 1990s. James Corner remarks that because the landscape architecture society has little knowledge about the high selectivity of the mapping technology in th和平精英科技购买平台e process of representing the object world, it takes the map as the fact foundation of plan and design work. Consequently, elements preferentially expressed on the map directly influence the design, and the excluded elements are ignored.

As a complicated system, the urban landscape is characterized b和平精英科技购买平台y multiple levels and diversity. It is crucial to unveil the spatial hierarchical order and structural logic of complex landscape systems at different scales, in order to achieve systematic and integrated cognition, and to guide the design. Importance has gradually been attached to the diversity of 和平精英科技购买平台spatial perspectives, the spatial participation of drafters, the deive effect of non-spatial elements, the process of morphological development, and other features of traditional city maps. In the meantime, modern city maps screen and combine different spatial information through layering, classific和平精英科技购买平台ation, superposition, collage, etc., so as to achieve the purpose of analysis and expression. As James Corner mentioned in The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention , a design and analysis tool called mapping was constructed through mapping settings (map frame, compass, coordinate s和平精英科技购买平台ystem, scale, measure, projection method), information element extraction (objects, segments, data), and element relation drawing (geometric space, hierarchical classification). This tool effectively combines the perception/measurement and design/invention functions.

In this column, the manus involve和平精英科技购买平台 abundant marvelous analyses of urban landscape maps, covering Venice of Italy, Rotterdam of the Netherlands, Tenerife of Spain and Bages of Central Catalonia on the European continent, the Greater Bay Area of China, Wuhan, Shenzhen, traditional villages in South Zhejiang and Busan of South Korea on和平精英科技购买平台 the Asian continent, and Detroit of the USA. The researchers are from multiple backgrounds, including China, Netherlands, Germany, South Korea, Spain, Australia, Chile, and South Africa. The breadth of the research objects proves the applicability of map analyses. The diversified backgrounds of res和平精英科技购买平台earchers also demonstrate that the research results of mapping can be adopted as consensuses in professional fields despite of the difference in space perspectives and space participation arising from various cultures, personal life and working experiences.

越早知道越好✎﹏城镇景观作者●免费和平精英开挂神器《风景园林》2022-11刊首语 | 郭巍:城市景观的设计与图析

本期专题组稿人:郭巍Acquiring editor of the current i和平精英科技购买平台ssue: GUO Wei2022年10月10日October 10, 2022完 整深度 阅读 请参看《风景园林》2022年11期

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